What is typhoid fever?
Typhoid is a bacterial infection which lead to high fever,diarrhoea,loss of appetite,vomiting. It is also known as Enteric fever and food water borne diseases
What is causative agent of typhoid?
It’s caused by the bacteria of family entero-bacteriacea named as Salmonella typhi. which is gram negative, rod shaped, flagellated bacteria. and it’s reservoir is human body
Incubation period of Typhoid Fever
Incubation period is the time after pathogen entering the body and before showing any symptoms.
The incubation period of typhoid is about 10-15 days. Salmonella typhi enter through the mouth in the human body. and reach in the intestine through intestine. From intestine it goes into the blood. spread into different organs of the body like liver,spleen. which again returned into intestine at that time Salmonella typhi has multiplied. that excreted in the faeces and whole process takes 10-15 days.
What are the mode of transmission of Typhoid Fever?
Typhoid is a diseases of digestive system. so it is mainly transmitted through contaminated food and water. in which bacteria salmonella typhi is present. It also transmitted if contaminated water. is used to wash vegetables,fruits.
Other agent is flies. which play most important role in Salmonella transmission. Actually flies sit on the infected faces. and also contaminate the food. that we eat without washing with pour water. In the market also food is not washed properly by shopkeeper. you can easily notice in the ‘channa chatpatte, panipuri’ shop.
Pathophysiology of typhoid Feve
■Patients ingest contaminated food
■ingested bacilli invade small intestinal mucosa
■s. typhi is taken up by macrophages and transported to lymph nodes
■S. typhi multiply in the intestinal lymph node
■Intact with enterocytes and M cell during Incubation period
■Bacilli enter the bloodstream after incubation period
■Bacteria multiply into higher number by invading gallbladder,billary system and lymph nodes
■passes out through intestinal tract in the stool
What are the sign and symptoms,clinical feature of Typhoid fever?
The sign and symptoms starts appearing after incubation period.
Stage 1:first week
-Slowly rise of temperature;
-Rose spot appear under the abdomen
-Significant weight loss in patients
-High risk of hemorrage
-Weight loss and weakness last month
-fever abdominal distension slowly improve over a few days
How typhoid is diagnosiged and detected?
Different kinds of test are performed to detect Salmonella typhi
-Specific Serologic test
-Urine and stool test
What are the Treatment of typhoid fever?
Ciprofloxacin (500mg bds),
Chloramphenicol (500mg qid)
Co-trimoxazole (2 tablet bds)
–Azithromycin -500mg once a day(alternative)
What are the prevenive measure of Typhoid fever?
-Proper cleanness and sanitaion;
-Do not eat raw fruits and vegetable;
-Wash your hand after using toilet and working;