Typhoid Fever:Causes,Sign,Symptoms,Treatment of Enteric fever

                    Typhoid fever

What is typhoid fever?

Typhoid is a bacterial infection which lead to high fever,diarrhoea,loss of appetite,vomiting.  It is also known as Enteric fever and food water borne diseases

What is causative agent of typhoid?

It’s caused by the bacteria of family entero-bacteriacea named as Salmonella typhi. which is gram negative, rod shaped, flagellated bacteria. and it’s reservoir is human body

Incubation period of Typhoid Fever

Incubation period is the time after pathogen entering the body and before showing any symptoms.
The incubation period of typhoid is about 10-15 days. Salmonella typhi enter  through the mouth in the human body. and reach in the intestine through intestine. From intestine it  goes into the blood. spread into different organs of the body like liver,spleen. which again returned into intestine at that time Salmonella typhi has multiplied. that excreted in the faeces and whole process takes 10-15 days.

What are the mode of transmission of Typhoid Fever?

Typhoid is a diseases of digestive system. so it is mainly transmitted through contaminated food and water. in which bacteria salmonella typhi is present. It also transmitted if contaminated water. is used to wash vegetables,fruits.

Other agent is flies. which play most important role in Salmonella transmission.  Actually  flies sit on the infected faces. and also contaminate the food. that we eat without washing with pour water. In the market also food is not washed properly by shopkeeper. you can easily notice in the ‘channa chatpatte, panipuri’ shop.

Pathophysiology of typhoid Feve

■Patients ingest contaminated food

■ingested bacilli invade small intestinal mucosa

■s. typhi is taken up by macrophages and   transported to lymph nodes

■S. typhi multiply in the intestinal lymph node 

■Intact with enterocytes and M cell during  Incubation period

 ■Bacilli enter the bloodstream after incubation  period

 ■Bacteria multiply into higher number by invading  gallbladder,billary system and lymph   nodes

■passes out through intestinal tract in the stool       

What are the sign and symptoms,clinical feature of Typhoid fever?

The sign and symptoms starts appearing after incubation period.

                                                      Clinical Feature

Stage 1:first week

-Slowly rise of temperature;

-Abdominal Pain;



-Rose spot appear under the abdomen




Stage2:second week

-Sign and symptoms increases

Stage3:third week

-Significant weight loss in patients


-High fever,anorexia

-High risk of hemorrage

Stage4:fourth week

-Weight loss and weakness last month

-fever abdominal distension slowly improve over a few days

How typhoid is diagnosiged and detected?

Different kinds of test are performed to detect Salmonella typhi

-Blood culture

-Specific Serologic test

-Urine and stool  test

-Clot culture

-Marrow culture

What are the Treatment of typhoid fever?

Antibiotic like 

Ciprofloxacin (500mg bds),

Chloramphenicol (500mg qid) 

Co-trimoxazole (2 tablet bds)

Ceftriaxone,cefotaxime (altrantive)

Azithromycin -500mg once a day(alternative)

What are the prevenive measure of Typhoid fever?

-Proper cleanness and sanitaion; 

-Do not eat raw fruits and vegetable;

-Wash your hand after using toilet and working;

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